The abstract section of your paper, much like the conclusion, is a paragraph that you should write only after completing your entire paper and shaping it according to the rest of your paper. 

There are four types of abstracts you can use, regardless of the topic and argument of your paper. Although each abstract is suitable for any paper, you may need to choose the type of abstract you use depending on your argument and topic. If you're unsure which type of abstract to use, don't worry, we've got you covered! In this article, we'll discuss what an abstract is and introduce its four types.

Ready? Let's dive in!


  • An abstract is a brief summary in which you convey the purpose, method, findings, and argument of your paper to the reader.
  • To create an abstract, you must complete the research, state your argument, describe your method, and present the results.
  • There are four types of abstracts that are suitable for different use cases and paper types: informative, descriptive, critical, and highlight abstract.
  • If you are looking for a customizable AI assistant to help you with any of your writing, including all types of abstracts, TextCortex is the way to go.

What is an Abstract?

An abstract is an article that presents the argument of your paper and gives the reader general information about your paper. A well-written abstract can convey the argument, key points, main topics, methods, and conclusion of your paper. This way, readers can understand the purpose of your paper without reviewing your entire paper.

abstract example
Abstract Example

Role of an Abstract

Because it provides a brief overview of your paper, an abstract can enable readers to judge whether they want to read the larger body paragraphs of the paper. Additionally, an abstract introduces your topic and includes your argument about the topic. This way, readers can understand your approach to the topic and your writing tone and use it for their own research.

Sections of an Abstract

A well-written summary includes at least 4 main sections that each have different functions and communicative goals. It explains the background and purpose of your introduction paper, which is the first section of an abstract. This section “Why was this topic researched?” and “Why should people care?” should answer your questions.

The second section of an abstract should state your main argument and thesis points. In this section, your readers should clearly understand what your paper is about and your approach to this topic. The third section of your abstract should include your research method. This way, your readers can be confident in the reliability of the sources you use and decide to continue reading. The last section of your abstract should consist of one or a few short sentences containing your findings and conclusion.

How to Write an Abstract?

To write an abstract, you must first complete your paper and review research reports that support and oppose your topic and argument. After completing your paper, you need to prepare statement sentences or questions to create your abstract and mention the key points of your paper. You can then state your research method and approach to the subject, and finally share your findings and results with the reader.

To write an abstract, you must first complete your paper and review research reports that support and oppose your topic and argument. After completing your paper, you need to restate your argument sentences or questions to create your abstract and mention the key points of your paper. You can then state your research method and approach to the subject, and finally share your findings and results with the reader.

4 Types of Abstract: Characteristics & Use Cases

If you do not have specific guidelines from your instructor or institution, there are four types of abstracts you can write. These abstracts have characteristics depending on your argument and the information you want to convey to the reader. Let's take a closer look at the types of abstracts together.

1-) Informative Abstract

While an informative abstract gives details about the background of your paper, its major points, your research method, your findings and conclusions, and the conclusion you reached, it can also include conditions that readers should pay attention to before reading the body paragraphs. An informative abstract consists of approximately 250 words and is the most frequently used abstract type. Informative abstracts can be used for almost any topic and argument.

Informative Abstract Example

This paper explores the integration of state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing (NLP) methodologies into machine translation systems. By analyzing the linguistic intricacies and computational challenges of translation, the study introduces an innovative NLP framework that enhances language understanding and translation accuracy. Employing a mixed-method research approach, both quantitative metrics and qualitative assessments were utilized to validate the proposed model's effectiveness. Results indicate a significant improvement in translation quality, particularly in contextual accuracy and idiomatic expression handling. Readers are advised to consider the technical depth of NLP strategies discussed before delving into subsequent sections. This informative abstract, consisting of approximately 250 words, encapsulates the paper’s background, methodology, findings, and the conclusion that advanced NLP techniques hold the potential to revolutionize machine translation.

2-) Descriptive Abstract

A descriptive abstract provides an overview of your paper and contains brief information about your key points and research method. A descriptive abstract, unlike an informative one, does not include your findings and results or convey conclusions and recommendations to the reader. In other words, a descriptive abstract is a more compact version of an informative abstract that contains less information. A descriptive abstract consists of approximately 100 words and is less informative than an informative abstract.

Descriptive Abstract Example

This brief overview highlights the research conducted on the application of Natural Language Processing to machine translation. Key points include the formulation of an advanced NLP framework and the adoption of a diverse research methodology to assess its impact. Without delving into specific outcomes or conclusions, this 100-word descriptive abstract outlines the study's scope, hinting at the potential for NLP to advance the field of machine translation by improving contextual understanding.

3-) Critical Abstract

Instead of focusing on the key point and argument of your paper, a critical abstract focus on the findings, results, and conclusion. A well-written critical abstract typically restates the paper's findings and conclusions from the researcher's point of view. Moreover, a critical abstract can compare and contrast findings by referencing outside information. A critical abstract consists of approximately 500 words and is more focused on the paper's conclusion.

Critical Abstract Example

This extensive critical abstract scrutinizes the outcomes of implementing cutting-edge NLP techniques in machine translation. Results underscore a notable elevation in accuracy and fluency of translated texts, with the researcher providing a detailed critique of the improved model contrasted with traditional approaches. Comparative analysis with existing literature revealed that this study's NLP framework demonstrates a marked efficiency gain. However, the study also highlights limitations inherent to NLP's current state. At 500 words, this abstract evaluates the research critically, offering a perspective on the findings and situating them within the broader scholarly discourse on machine translation.

4-) Highlight Abstract

Hook sentences, which are used to attract the attention of the reader in an article or blog post, are exactly equivalent to a highlight abstract. A highlight abstract aims to persuade the reader to read the entire paper rather than just inform the reader or explain the findings. For this reason, a highlight abstract contains less information and more catchy sentences than the other three.

Highlight Abstract Example

Step into the future of translation! This study takes a groundbreaking leap, melding Natural Language Processing with machine translation to unlock unprecedented accuracy. Thrilling advancements await inside, marking a pivotal turn in technology and linguistics that demands your attention. This punchy, 50-word highlight abstract teases the revolutionary findings without revealing the full depth, spurring curiosity and drawing readers into the full narrative of NLP's transformative impact on machine translation.

TextCortex AI: Create Perfect Abstracts with AI

If you're looking for an AI assistant to help you complete a variety of writing tasks, including abstract types, look no further than TextCortex! TextCortex aims to reduce the workload of its users and skyrocket their productivity with its advanced AI features, automation options and easy-to-use templates. TextCortex is available as a web application and browser extension. The TextCortex browser extension is integrated with 30,000+ websites and apps. So, he can continue to support you wherever and whenever.

Zeno Assistant

If you want to write an abstract and don't know where to start, or if you need a personal assistant while drafting your paper, Zeno Assistant can be your saviour. Zeno Assistant is offered by TextCortex and is designed to support you at every stage of your writing process, from creating an outline to proofreading.

To activate Zeno Assistant in any textbox on 30,000+ websites, including Pages and Google Docs, simply use the “Alt/Opt + Enter” shortcut. Thus, you can benefit from Zeno Assistant's advanced AI writing features. Some of the most popular Zeno Assistant features include:

  • Rewrite
  • Summarize
  • Make Longer/Shorter
  • Simplify Language
  • Continue Writing
  • Draft Essay / Blog Post / Outline
  • Find Action Items


TextCortex comes with the conversational AI of your dreams, called ZenoChat. ZenoChat is a customizable conversational AI designed to support its users in a variety of tasks, from research to text generation. ZenoChat offers clear and human-like responses, as well as text generation options such as abstracts, introductions, articles, conclusions, emails, and paraphrasing with different tones of voice.

ZenoChat comes with a web search feature that allows it to use the whole internet as a data source to generate output. The ZenoChat web search feature has 7 different options: Scholar, Internet, YouTube, Reddit, Twitter, News, and Wikipedia. If you activate the Scholar option, ZenoChat will only use the data it receives from scholarly sources when producing output.

ZenoChat offers a fully customizable AI experience through our "Individual Personas" and "Knowledge Bases" features. Our "Individual Personas" feature enables you to create ZenoChat's output style, tone of voice, and personality based on your preferences. Our "Knowledge Bases" feature allows you to train your own custom AI chatbot by uploading or connecting data sets that ZenoChat will use to generate output.

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